Lithium battery series and parallel Aug 23, 2021

In different application fields, the requirements for batteries are different, and the system has some special requirements for voltage, capacity, and internal resistance. Often a single cell battery cannot meet the requirements, and the battery needs to be connected in series and parallel to form a lithium battery pack before it can supply power to the outside.


The performance of batteries in series and parallel is determined by the performance of the worst battery, which is what we often call the "barrel principle". Therefore, the most important point of a battery pack is the consistency of battery performance parameters.


Such as notebooks, electric bicycles, electric vehicles, energy storage systems, etc., all need to consider the series and parallel connection of batteries to form a battery pack.

Notebook battery voltage is generally 11.1V or 14.8V, mainly using 18650 batteries, so generally 2 series 3 parallel or 2 series 4 parallel.

Apple iPAD is 3 polymer batteries connected in parallel with a capacity of about 25Wh. Electric bicycles and electric motorcycle systems are generally 24V, 36V, 48V, 60V, 72V systems.

The specific group situation of lithium batteries is shown in the table below (S stands for series connection).

Pure electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEV) have higher voltages, around 250~550V. Tesla’s Model S has a total of more than 7000 18650 lithium batteries in series and parallel, and BYD’s “Qin” has a total of 140 lithium batteries in series.

(Source: JNGE POWER)

In addition, there are many things to consider when batteries are connected in series and parallel, such as the consistency of the battery voltage platform, the consistency of the battery capacity, and the consistency of the battery's internal resistance. The consistency of the parameters after the battery is connected in series and parallel has a great influence on the performance and life of the battery.

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